Seizure disorder also know as Epilepsy is Not a social Stigma and can be treated. By Dr Gautam Arora MBBS MD DM (Neurologist and Pain Specialist)

NewswireOnline:- Epilepsy is a chronic disease that causes repeated seizures due to abnormal electrical signals produced by damaged brain cells. A burst of uncontrolled electrical activity within brain cells causes a seizure.

NEW DELHI, INDIA — What happens in your brain when you have epilepsy?

This electrical disruption causes changes in your awareness (including loss of consciousness), sensations, emotions, and muscle movements.

What are the signs and symptoms of epileptic seizures?

  • Temporary loss of awareness or consciousness.
  • Uncontrolled muscle movements, muscle jerking, loss of muscle tone.
  • Blank stare or “staring into space” look.
  • Temporary confusion slowed thinking, and problems with talking and understanding.
  • Lip-smacking, chewing motion, rubbing hands, finger motions.
  • Faster heart rate and/or breathing.

What causes epilepsy?

Most of the time (in up to 70% of cases), the cause of seizures is not known. Known causes include:

  • Genetics.
  • Mesial temporal sclerosis. This is a scar that forms in the inner part of your temporal lobe (part of your brain near your ear).
  • Brain infections. Infections can include brain abscess, meningitis, encephalitis, and neurocysticercosis.
  • Immune disorders. Conditions that cause your immune system to attack brain cells (also called autoimmune diseases) can lead to epilepsy.
  • Developmental disorders. Some birth abnormalities known to cause epilepsy include focal cortical dysplasia, polymicrogyria, and tuberous sclerosis.
  • Metabolic disorders. People with a metabolic condition can have epilepsy.
  • Brain health issues that can cause epilepsy include brain tumors, strokes, dementia, and abnormal blood vessels, such as arteriovenous malformations.

What Types of Seizures Are There?

There are two major types of seizures:

Focal seizures: These start in a particular part of your brain, and their names are based on the part where they happen. G

Generalized seizures: These happen when nerve cells on both sides of your brain misfire. They can make you have muscle spasms, a blackout, or a fall.

Generalized Seizures: There are six kinds of generalized seizures:

Tonic-clonic (or grand mal) seizures: These are the most noticeable. When you have this type, your body stiffens, jerks, and shakes, and you lose consciousness. Sometimes you lose control of your bladder or bowels.

Clonic seizures: Your muscles have spasms, which often make your face, neck, and arm muscles jerk rhythmically. They may last several minutes.

Tonic seizures: The muscles in your arms, legs, or trunk tense up. But if you’re standing up at the time, you can lose your balance and fall.

Atonic seizures: Your muscles suddenly go limp, and your head may lean forward.

Myoclonic seizures: Your muscles suddenly jerk as if you’ve been shocked.

Absence (or petit mal) seizures: You seem disconnected from others around you and don’t respond to them. You may stare blankly into space.

Diagnosis and Treatment

Electroencephalography (EEG)

This is the initial test performed on every patient and is usually done as an outpatient procedure (pictured here).

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)

This may detect an abnormality that could be the cause of epilepsy (lesional epilepsy) or may be normal (non-lesional epilepsy).

Positron emission tomography (PET)

PET scans look at the metabolic activity of the brain and allow physicians to determine if the brain is functioning normally.

Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)

SPECT scans performed during seizures can identify the brain region where blood flow increases and thus indicate where they begin.


Treatment for seizures often involves the use of anti-seizure medications. There are many different options for anti-seizure medication. Your doctor will consider your condition, your frequency of seizures, your age, and other factors when choosing which medication to prescribe

Surgical Procedures

Surgery for the treatment of epilepsy involves resection, disconnection, stereotactic radiosurgery, or implantation of neuromodulation devices.

The vagus nerve stimulator (VNS) is an FDA-approved device for the treatment of epilepsy that is not controlled with antiepileptic medications.

Status epilepticus

Status epilepticus is a long-lasting (five to 30 minutes) seizure or seizures that occur close together without time to recover between them. It’s considered a medical emergency.
Emergency treatment at a hospital may include:

  • Medications, oxygen, and intravenous fluids.
  • Placement (with anesthetics) into a coma to stop the seizures.
  • EEG monitoring to determine response to treatment.

Living and Coping with Epilepsy
People with epilepsy are at risk for two life-threatening conditions: tonic-clonic status epilepticus and sudden unexplained death in epilepsy (SUDEP). Tonic-clonic status epilepticus is a long-lasting seizure that’s considered a medical emergency. If not stopped within about 30 minutes, it may cause permanent injury or death.

NPMC Neurology and Pain Management Clinic
Patient care at Best and Affordable.
Dr. Gautam Arora MBBS MD DM (Neurologist and Pain Specialist)
E 164/1 Kamla Nagar
Delhi North 110007

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